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MIL Spec 810H High Temp
Procedure I (storage) exposes the device to high temperatures while it is turned off, and its purpose is to test the durability of the physical materials that make up the device.
Procedure II (operation) is concerned with how the device puts up with heat while having it turned on and used. Procedure II is actually in two parts:
- Constant exposure tests are usually reserved for devices that are meant to be in continuous proximity to an artificial heat source.
- Cyclic exposure tests are more indicative of real-world conditions. The range of temperatures used in an operational cyclical test go from 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit) to upwards of 49 degrees C (120 degrees F). The temperature needs to cycle from one end to the other a minimum of three times while testing that the device functions at every point in the test.
Procedure III (tactical-standby to operational) gauges how it works under operational temperatures after having been exposed to higher storage temperatures.
Mil Spec 810H Low Temp
Procedure I (storage) exposes the device to low temperatures while it is turned off, and its purpose is to test the durability of the physical materials that make up the device.
Procedure II (operation) testing involves slowly cooling the device to the low temperature in the appropriate range and leaving it at that temperature for at least two hours, checking visually to see that it is still functioning during that time.
Procedure III (manipulation) investigates the ease with which the device can be set up and disassembled while wearing heavy winter clothing.
The ability to view your screen in direct sunlight. The techniques used by manufactures vary from one brand to the next. These techniques may include brighter LCD panels, and the bonding of layer to reduce sunglare/reflection while increasing viewability.
As defined in international standard IEC 60529, it classifies the degrees of protection provided against the intrusion of solid objects (including body parts like hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water in electrical enclosures. The standard aims to provide users more detailed information than vague marketing terms such as waterproof. IP65 means Protected from total dust ingress and Protected from low pressure water jets from any direction.
|First Digit: Solids Protection
|Second Digit: Liquids Protection
Mil Spec 810H Dust/Sand
Procedure I (blowing dust) tests ingress of dust particles that are smaller than 150 micrometers (μm) at an average concentration of 10.6 grains per cubic meter (0.3 grains per cubic foot). Maintain for at least six hours at standard ambient temperature, rotating the device to eventually expose all sides. Then raise to operating temperature, lower the wind speed, stop the dust, and test for another 6 hours, rotating the device as necessary.
Procedure II (blowing sand) tests ingress with particles that are between 150 μm and 850 μm with much higher winds – 18 to 29 meters/sec (40-65 mph). The sand concentration will vary widely depending on the target environment — the high end simulates being near aircraft, for example. The test is run for 90 minutes for each face the device has, stopping the sand and wind so it can be rotated safely.
Mil Spec 810H Drop
The MIL-STD-810H drop test is also called “shock” tests in certain documents. These tests are designed to measure the durability of equipment during load/unloading and transportation. The drop test consists in testing the resistance to shock of all the equipment surface: all faces, edges, and corners. In total, 26 drops from about 4 feet (phones, laptops) are necessary to perform the complete drop test. After each drop, the equipment is inspected for damage.
The drop surface is 2-inches of plywood (on top of concrete) because it is the most likely surface that things fall onto in a military transport context. In the real world, this may be different because people stand on concrete, metal or marble more so than on plywood.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) reviews safety standards, include Hazardous Locations, every 5 years. In July 2012, UL 1604 — Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I and II, Division 2 Hazardous Locations — was withdrawn as the approved ANSI standard for use in the United States. UL1604 was replaced with ISA 12.12.01-2000 which has very similar requirements as UL1604 Hazardous Locations Class 1 Division 2.
ANSI 12.12.01-2000 Hazardous Location certification allows products to be used in potentially explosive environments found in oil and gas, petrochemical, aviation and other industries. ANSI 12.12.01-2000 Hazardous Location approved models are available for use in Class I, Division 2, Groups A, B, C and D environments. These are defined as places where flammable gases, vapors and liquids are present during abnormal or accident conditions.
DURABOOK U11I, R11, R11L tablets and Z14I laptop can be configured to provide safe, reliable solutions for spark-free use.
ATEX derives its name from the French title of the 94/9/EC directive: Appareils destinés à être utilisés en ATmosphères EXplosives. It’s a European Union directive from the European Committee for Standardization that covers “equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres.”
All equipment and protective systems intended for this type of use in the EU must meet ATEX health and safety requirements. For equipment intended for use in certain less hazardous explosive locations, manufacturers can self-certify their equipment. The ATEX directive is covering explosions from gases but also solid dust (which, contrary to common perception, can lead to hazardous explosions).
Hazard – Gas/vapour/mist:
Zone 0 – A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air of dangerous substances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is present continuously or for long periods or frequently.
Zone 1 – A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air of dangerous substances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally.
Zone 2 – A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air of dangerous substances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is not likely to occur in normal operation but, if it does occur, will persist for a short period only.
Hazard – Powder/dust:
Zone 20 – A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is present continuously, or for long periods or frequently.
Zone 21 – A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally.
Zone 22 – A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is not likely to occur in normal operation but, if it does occur, will persist for a short period only.
- The bridge battery is designed for Hot swapping feature while replacing power source without stopping or shutting down the system. The bridge battery provides users couple minutes (depends on its capacity) to hot swap batteries to achieve limitless work performance.
- BitLocker is Microsoft’s easy-to-use, proprietary Encryption program for Windows that can encrypt your entire drive as well as help protect against unauthorized changes to your system such as firmware-level malware.
- To run BitLocker you’ll need a Windows PC running one of the OS flavors mentioned above, plus a storage drive with at least two partitions and a Trusted Platform Module (TPM).
CAC & Smartcard
- The CAC, a “smart” card about the size of a credit card, is the standard identification for active duty uniformed Service personnel, Selected Reserve, DoD civilian employees, and eligible contractor personnel. It is also the principal card used to enable physical access to buildings and controlled spaces, and it provides access to DoD computer network and systems.
- Benefits of Smart Card, CAC, and PIV
- Authentication. A basic purpose is to allow users to prove their identity.
- Confidentiality. The certificate can be used with asymmetric cryptography to ensure confidentiality of data.
- Integrity. The certificate can also be used with digital signatures and provide integrity for the message.
- Non-repudiation. In addition to providing integrity, a digital signature also provides integrity.
Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO)Test
- HERO testing is used to determine that the ordnance safety margins required are met when the unit under test is exposed to the high levels of electric fields required by MIL-STD-464.
- The “Unrestricted” levels are intended for ship launched ordnance that will traverse the main beam of transmitters in the 2.7 GHz to 3.6 GHz reaching peak fields of 27,460 V/m. For all other ordnance the unrestricted peak field level in this frequency band is reduced to 12,667 V/m, with an average field level of 1,553 V/m. The
- “Restricted” levels are intended for ordnance areas where personnel may be present such as assembly/disassembly and loading/unloading areas. In order to for an ordnance manufacturer to obtain a “HERO SAFE ORDNANCE” at the all-up round or appropriate assembly level, the ordnance must be evaluated against these test levels.
- The Federal Information Processing Standard 140-2 (FIPS 140-2) is a U.S. and Canadian co-sponsored security standard for hardware, software, and firmware solutions. In U.S. government procurement, all solutions that use cryptography must complete FIPS 140-2 validation to ensure end users receive a high degree of security, assurance, and dependability.
- Organizations use the FIPS 140-2 standard to ensure that the hardware they select meets specific security requirements. The FIPS standard defines four increasing, qualitative levels of security:
|Requires production-grade equipment and externally tested algorithms.
|Adds requirements for physical tamper-evidence and role-based authentication. Software implementations must run on an Operating System approved to Common Criteria at EAL2.
|Adds requirements for physical tamper-resistance and identity-based authentication. There must also be physical or logical separation between the interfaces by which “critical security parameters” enter and leave the module. Private keys can only enter or leave in encrypted form.
|This level makes the physical security requirements more stringent, requiring the ability to be tamper-active, erasing the contents of the device if it detects various forms of environmental attack.
- MIL-STD-461 is the standard that defines the test limits, test levels, and test procedure for various electromagnetic phenomena for electronic equipment used by the U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force on all platforms (ground, sea, and air). MIL-STD-461G is the latest version.
- This standard is best suited for bench top mounted or free standing equipment, with a power input current draw of less than 200 amps. It is not commonly applied to items such as components and independent modules located inside electronic enclosures, nor entire platforms such as an aircraft or submarines.
- MIL-STD-810H is series of tests designed by the U.S military to test its equipment limits in various conditions where it is expected to be used (environment) or transported (shocks). The test vary according to the nature, size and weight of the equipment tested.
- The most common environmental tests are:
- High/Low Temperature
- Transit Drop (Shock)
- Humidity Resistance
- The testing standards vary based on the positioning of rugged devices. (semi or fully-rugged)
- Nits is a measurement of how much light the TV screen sends to your eyes (luminance) within a give area. On a more technical level, a NIT is an amount of light output equal to one candela per square meter (cd/m2 – a standardized measurement of luminous intensity). A higher rating means a brighter display. Displays for laptops and mobile devices are usually between 200 and 300 nits on average.
- For an equally vivid picture, an outdoor display must be at least 400 nits; what’s more, it must be at least 700 nits to appear bright and readable in direct sunlight.
- “It’s a bit of an arms race with specs. There’s a not a huge demonstrable difference between 700 nits and 2,000 nits. It’s not a direct ratio. 2,000 nits is not three times brighter than 700 nits,” says Tom Dixon, vice president of marketing at SunBrite TV. “The dramatic difference is between 400 and 700 nits.”
- Fully-rugged devices are designed from the inside-out to work in extreme temperatures, to be impervious to being dropped, to resist shocks and vibrations and to be dustproof and waterproof.
- A rugged laptop is built to operate reliably in dusty or wet environments and conditions. These laptops have a thicker and stronger housing compared to a regular laptop. These ruggedized laptops are mainly used for industrial, construction and military purposes. Yet a rugged laptop is able to comply with other important requirements such as high performance and governmental grade security. Rugged laptops are engineered to be mobile, they are vibration, shock, drop, dust and waterproof.
- A fully-rugged device is usually IP65 and MIL-STG-810 certified.
- A SED, or Self Encrypting Drive, is a hard disk drive (HDD) or solid state drive (SSD) with an encryption circuit built into the drive. It transparently encrypts all data written to the media and when unlocked, transparently decrypts all data read from the media.
- This encryption process is done through the use of a unique and random Data Encryption Key (DEK) which the drive uses to both encrypt and decrypt the data. Whenever data is written to the drive, it first gets encrypted according to the DEK. Similarly, whenever data is read from the drive, it first gets decrypted by the same DEK before being sent to the rest of the system.
- Semi-rugged devices, which are increasingly being called business-rugged by marketers, are usually enhanced versions of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. The components are the same, but they are protected better. For example, a semi-rugged laptop might have a thicker case, a gel-mounted hard disk drive and a spill-resistant keyboard.
- The semi-rugged might have a protective case, rain-resistant body.
- The semi rugged device is usually IP5x and MIL-STG-810 certified.
- Unlike fully-rugged laptops, semi rugged laptops are susceptible to a decrease in performance in extreme temperatures, or frozen screens at freezing temperatures.
- The defense and aerospace market continues to push for reductions in size, weight, power, and cost (SWaP-C) to support advanced sensor/vetronics payloads onboard unmanned platforms. Groundbreaking SWaP-C reduction for processor and network switch systems are enabling UAS (unmanned aircraft system) and UGV (unmanned ground vehicle) platforms to expand their mission capabilities.
- The need for ever greater SWaP reductions stems largely from the balance between the small size of many unmanned platforms and the amount of payload electronics that needs to be integrated on those platforms.